The SUU-16/A uses the electric M61A1 with a ram-air turbine to power the motor. Practically no powered rotary cannon is supplied with sufficient ammunition for a full minute of firing, due to its weight. The SUU-16/A uses the electric M61A1 with a ram-air turbine to power the motor. [8], In 1993, General Electric sold its aerospace division, including GE Armament Systems along with the design and production tooling for the M61 and GE's other rotary cannon, to Martin Marietta. The system is suitable for night operations with the use of AN/PVS series night vision sights that can be mounted to the right side of the primary sight. The gun fires at 3,000 rounds per minute … It was fitted in a side-firing installation on the Fairchild AC-119, some marks of the Lockheed AC-130 gunships, and was used in the tail turrets of both the Convair B-58 Hustler and Boeing B-52H Stratofortress bombers. The later M940 multi-purpose incendiary tracer-self d… The M163s uses a small, range-only radar, the AN/VPS-2, and an M61 optical lead-calculating sight. The gun mount moves at a very high speed and with great precision. In response to this requirement, the Armament Division of General Electric resurrected an old idea: the multi-barrel Gatling gun. American fighters with .50 cal main armament, such as the P-51 and P-47, had to be close with the enemy in order to hit and damage enemy aircraft. [citation needed] The size of the airframe and available internal space limits the size of the ammunition drum and thus limits the ammunition capacity. Japan's Mitsubishi F-1 carried one internally mounted JM61A1 Vulcan with 750 rounds. As C-RAM is not a naval application, I do not include these rounds in the table above. The higher speeds of jet-powered fighter aircraft meant that achieving an effective number of hits would be extremely difficult without a much higher volume of fire. The cannon can be loaded with target practice, armor piercing, or high explosive incendiary rounds. It can be bought in the Gun Shop for$50,000,000, the same price as the Atomic Armor and the Experimental Overdrive. The round is fired by an electric priming system where an electric current from a firing lead passes through the firing pin to the primer as each round is rotated into the firing position. [citation needed], Most aircraft versions of the M61 are hydraulically driven and electrically primed. Hydraulically operated, electrically fired, 3,450 feet per second (1,050 m/s) with PGU-28/B round. Capt. I may want to invest in the company supplying the ammo. Other aircraft include the Italian/Brazilian AMX International AMX (on Italian aircraft only), and the F-22 Raptor. Experienced officers discouraged formation firing at more 250 or 300 yards. A lesson of World War II air combat was that German, Italian, and Japanese fighters could attack American aircraft from long range with their cannon main armament. [citation needed], In 1993, General Electric sold its aerospace division, including GE Armament Systems along with the design and production tooling for the M61 and GE's other rotary cannon, to Martin Marietta. A. The M61 and its derivatives have been the principal cannon armament of United States military fixed … Lockheed Martin Armament Systems was later acquired by General Dynamics, who currently produce the M61 and its variants. 2 m (6.6 ft) effective radius to produce casualties to exposed personnel. [2], Each of the cannon's six barrels fires once in turn during each revolution of the barrel cluster. Given that both systems are from different origins, they haven’t been directly compared in the same settings and I haven’t seen any claimed accuracy figures for the GSh-301 so far, which I have (but don’t remember now) for the M61A1. Multi-purpose fuzeless round with an incendiary charge in the nose setting off the HE behind it with a slight delay to maximize lethality against aircraft. The rotor and housing have also been modified to remove any piece of metal not absolutely needed for operation and replaces some metal components with lighter weight materials. The M6A1 and M6A2 cannons are effective against enemy aircraft and “soft” ground targets, firing 20mm rounds at an extremely high rate (M6A1 – 6,000 rpm) and (M61A2 – 6,600 rpm). [26], Two gun pod versions, the SUU-16/A (also designated M12 by the US Army) and improved SUU-23/A (US Army M25), were developed in the 1960s, often used on gunless versions of the F-4. The improved pods were self-powered and properly synchronized to the sights, while the USAF versions of the F-4 were hastily fitted with internal M61 cannon in a prominent fairing under the nose, well before the war ended (Navy Phantoms never received a cannon, continuing to rely on air-to-air missiles alone). A variety of Armor-Piercing Incendiary (API), High Explosive Incendiary (HEI), and training rounds are available. This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 23:43. The round is fired by an electric priming system where an electric current from a firing lead passes through the firing pin to the primer as each round is rotated into the firing position. Eventually, the standard 20×102 mm cartridge was determined to have the desired balance of projectile/explosive mass and muzzle velocity, resulting in an optimum balance of range, accuracy and kinetic energy on target. A disadvantage of the M61 is that the bulk of the weapon, its feed system, and ammunition drum makes it difficult to fit it into a densely packed airframe. [14] PGU-28/B is a "low-drag" round designed to reduce in-flight drag and deceleration, and has a slightly increased muzzle velocity of 3,450 feet per second (1,050 m/s). The 20mm Hispano carried by the P-38 while formidable against propeller driven planes was deemed a relatively low velocity weapon in the age of jets, while other cannon were notoriously unreliable. The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet also uses this version. The weapon is mounted on a modified M113 vehicle (the M741 carrier). While captured German designs (principally the Mauser MG 213C) showed the potential of the single-barrel revolver cannon, the practical rate of fire of such a design was still limited by ammunition feed and barrel wear concerns. [citation needed], Most aircraft versions of the M61 are hydraulically driven and electrically primed. In 1946, the Army issued General Electric a contract for "Project Vulcan", a six-barrel weapon capable of firing 7,200 rounds per minute (rpm). The rotor and housing have also been modified to remove any piece of metal not absolutely needed for operation and replaces some metal components with lighter weight materials. The original weapon was soon replaced by the M61A1, with a linkless feed system. Combat experience in Vietnam showed that a gun could be more effective than guided missiles in many combat situations, and that an externally carried gun pod was less effective than an internal gun; the first generation of gun pods such as the SUU-16 were not oriented with the sights of the fighter. 30, 31, 88, McCarthy Jr. p. 38, photo of 23mm cannon exit hole on Maj. Tracy's F-105. [citation needed], A variant with much shorter barrels, designated the M195, was also developed for use on the M35 Armament Subsystem for use on the AH-1G Cobra helicopter. Th… The M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically, electrically or pneumatically driven, six-barrel, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style rotary cannon which fires 20 mm rounds at an extremely high rate (typically 6,000 rounds per minute). Most aircraft installations are double-ended, because the ejection of empty cartridges can cause a foreign-object damage hazard for jet engines and because the retention of spent cases assists in maintaining the center of gravity of the aircraft. It was fitted in a side-firing installation on the Fairchild AC-119 and some marks of the Lockheed AC-130 gunships, and was used in the tail turrets of both the Convair B-58 Hustler and Boeing B-52H Stratofortress bombers. fighters. The gun rotor, barrel assembly and ammunition feed system are rotated by a hydraulic drive motor through a system of flexible drive shafts. Practically no powered rotary cannon is supplied with sufficient ammunition for a full minute of firing, due to its weight (at 6,000 rpm, the projectiles alone would represent a mass of about 600 kg (1,300 lb) for one minute firing; and by including the brass shell, filling and primer the weight is slightly double that at 1,225 kg (2,701 lb). It was also adopted as standard in the "teen"-series air superiority fighters, the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. At the end of World War II, the United States Army Air Forces began to consider new directions for future military aircraft guns. 148–57. [26] It was integrated into the newer F-4E Phantom II variants. This variant fed from ammunition boxes fitted to the landing skid and was developed to provide the AH-1 helicopter with a longer-range suppressive fire system before the adoption of the M97 Universal Turret mounting the M197 cannon. It has the highest ammo capacity in the game game. The idea of powering a Gatling gun from an external electric power source was not a novel idea at the end of World War II, as Richard Jordan Gatling himself had done just that with a patent he filed in 1893,[5] with the similar, but powered either by the aircraft engine or an electric motor, 12-barreled Fokker-Leimberger aircraft rotary machine gun under development during World War I by the German Empire. [9], The self-powered version, the GAU-4 (called M130 in Army service), is gas-operated, tapping gun gas from three of the six barrels to operate the gun gas driven mechanism. It is a semi-armor-piercing high-explosive incendiary (SAPHEI) round, providing improvements in range, accuracy, and power over the preceding M56A3 HEI round. The improved pods were self-powered and properly synchronized to the fighters sights. Wahl, Paul F; Toppel, Donald R (5 Oct 2005). 6.3 mm RHA penetration at 0 degree impact angle and 1000 m range. The primary use of the cannon is in the extremely short range (less than 2000 feet) air-to-air environment, where more sophistacated air-to-air missiles are ineffective. The next generation of fighters built post-Vietnam incorporated the M61 gun internally. Its limited effective range was 1.2 kilometers against aerial targets and up to 2.0 kilometers against ground targets. The first aircraft to carry the M61A1 was the C model of the F-104, starting in 1959. While captured German designs (principally the Mauser MG 213C) showed the potential of the single-barrel revolver cannon, the practical rate of fire of such a design was still limited by ammunition feed and barrel wear concerns. The PGU-28/B is a "low-drag" round designed to reduce in-flight drag and deceleration, and has a slightly increased muzzle velocity of 3,450 feet per second (1,050 m/s). [7], The development of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter revealed that the T171 Vulcan (later redesignated M61) suffered problems with its linked ammunition, being prone to misfeed and presenting a foreign object damage (FOD) hazard with discarded links. [citation needed]. Until the late 1980s the M61 primarily used the M50 series of ammunition in various types, typically firing a 3.5 ounces (99 g) projectile at a muzzle velocity of about 3,380 feet per second (1,030 m/s). It has been the principal cannon armament of … The rotary cannon was 20mm in caliber and fitted to a powered turret offering 360-degree traverse. The PGU-28/B has not been without problems, however. Most aircraft installations are double-ended, because the ejection of empty cartridges can cause a foreign-object damage (FOD) hazard for jet engines and because the retention of spent cases assists in maintaining the center of gravity of the aircraft. The main types of combat rounds and their main characteristics are listed in the table below. The M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barrel, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style rotary cannon which fires 20 mm rounds at an extremely high rate (typically 6,000 rounds per minute). ", Toperczer (MiG-17/MiG-19 Units) pp. The cyclic rate of fire is a selectable 1.000 or 3.000 rpm. The gun rotor, barrel assembly and ammunition feed system are rotated by a hydraulic drive motor through a system of flexible drive shafts. The higher speeds of jet-powered fighter aircraft meant that achieving an effective number of hits would be extremely difficult without a much higher volume of fire. 2 m effective radius to produce casualties to exposed personnel. "Projects". The Vulcan was later fitted into the weapons bay of some Convair F-106 Delta Dart and General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark models. [citation needed], The PGU-28/B is a semi-armor piercing high explosive incendiary (SAPHEI) round, providing substantial improvements in range, accuracy, and power over the preceding M56A3 HEI round. Tran Hanh, and the only survivor from the four MiGs, reported that U.S. jets had pursued them and that F-105s had shot down three of his aircraft, killing Lieutenants Pham Giay, Le Minh Huan, and Tran Nguyen Nam. During service in the Vietnam War, the pods proved to be relatively inaccurate: the pylon mounting was not rigid enough to prevent deflection when firing, and repeated use would misalign the pod on its pylon, making matters worse. Elevation was limited to +80 and -5 and effective range was out to 5 kilometers depending on ammunition type. The higher speeds of jet-powered fighter aircraft meant that achieving an effective number of hits would be extremely difficult without a much higher volume of fire. 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